A Short DW DBMS Market History: HANA, Oracle, DB2, Netezza, Teradata, & Greenplum

Here is a quick review of tens years of data warehouse database competition… and a peek ahead…

Maybe ten years ago Netezza shook up the DW DBMS market with a parallel database machine that could compete with Teradata.

About six years ago Greenplum entered the market with a commodity-based product that was competitive… and then added column store to make it a price/performance winner.

A couple of years later Oracle entered with Exadata… a product competitive enough to keep the Oracle faithful on an Oracle product… but nothing really special otherwise.

Teradata eventually added a columnar feature that matched Greenplum… and Greenplum focussed away from the data warehouse space. Netezza could not match the power of columnar and could not get there so they fell away.

At this point Teradata was more-or-less back on top… although Greenplum and the other chipped away based on price. In addition, Hadoop entered the market and ate away at Teradata’s dominance in the Big Data space. The impact of Hadoop is well documented in this blog.

Three-to-four years ago SAP introduced HANA and the whole market gasped. HANA was delivering 1000X performance using columnar formats, memory to eliminate I/O, and bare-metal techniques that effectively loaded data into the processor in full cache lines.

Unfortunately, SAP did not take advantage of their significant lead in the general database markets. They focussed on their large installed base of customers… pricing HANA in a way that generated revenue but did not allow for much growth in market share. Maybe this was smart… maybe not… I was not privy to the debate.

Now Oracle has responded with in-memory columnar capability and IBM has introduced BLU. We might argue over which implementation is best… but clearly whatever lead SAP HANA held is greatly diminished. Further, HANA pricing makes it a very tough sell outside of its implementation inside the SAP Business Suite.

Teradata has provided a memory-based cache under its columnar capabilities… but this is not at the same level of sophistication as the HANA, 12c, BLU technologies which compute directly against compressed columnar data.

Hadoop is catching up slowly and we should expect that barring some giant advance from the commercial space that they will reach parity in the next 5 years or so (the will claim parity sooner… but if we require all of the capabilities offered to be present there is just no way to produce mature software any faster than 5 years).

Interestingly there is one player who seems to be advancing the state of the art. Greenplum has rolled out a best-in-class optimizer with Orca… and now has acquired Quickstep which may provide the state-of-the-art in bare metal columnar computing. When these come together Greenplum could once again bounce to the top of the performance, and the price/performance, stack. In addition, Greenplum has skinnied down and is running on an open source business model. They are very Hadoop-friendly.

It will be interesting to see if this open-source business model provides the revenue to drive advanced development… there is not really a “community” behind Greenplum development. It will also be interesting to see if the skinny business model will allow for the deployment of an enterprise-level sales force… but it just might. If Pivotal combines this new technology with a focus on the large EDW market… they may become a bigger player.

Note that was sort of dumb-luck that I posted about how Hadoop might impact revenues of big database players like Teradata right before Teradata posted a loss… but do not over think this and jump to the conclusion that Teradata is dying. They are the leader in their large space. They have great technology and they more-or-less keep up with the competition. But skinnier companies can afford to charge less and Teradata, who grew up in the days of big enterprise software, will have to skinny down like Greenplum. It will be much harder for Teradata than it was for Greenplum… and both companies will struggle with profitability for a while. But it is these technology and market dynamics that give us all something to think about, blog about, and talk about over beers…

The Greenplum ORCA Optimizer

In January Greenplum rolled out a new query optimizer. This is very cool and very advanced stuff.

Query optimization is a search problem… in a perfect world you would search through the space of all possible plans for any query and choose the least expensive plan. But the time required to iterate through all possible plans would take more time than most queries… so optimizers use rules to cut down the space searched. The rules have been built up over the years and are designed to prune the space quickly to keep performance high for simple queries. But these rules can break down when complex queries are introduced… so Greenplum made the significant investment to build a new optimizer from scratch.

Florian Waas, the leader of this program for Greenplum (now off on another venture) explained it to me this way. If the large rectangle in Figure 1 represents the total search space for a query, a modern query optimizer only searches the area in the small gray square… it looks for the best plan in that small space.

DBFog Query Search Space Fig1You may be surprised to learn that the optimizers used by every major DBMS product are single-threaded… they use only one core of a multi-core processor to search the space and produce a plan. There is no way to effectively search more with a faster single processor (even though you could search more the amount of time you spend as a percentage of the query execution time would stay the same… because the query execution would speed up as well)… so if the optimizer is to search more of the space it will have to use multiple cores and search the space in parallel… and this is exactly what Greenplum has accomplished.

The benchmark results for this are impressive (see here)… several queries in the TPC-DS suite run hundreds of times faster.

ORCA is available to early support customers now and the results map to the benchmark… some queries see an extreme performance boost, while others run significantly slower. This is to be expected from any first release optimizer.

But Greenplum have built another advanced technology into ORCA to reduce the time it will take to mature the software. ORCA includes AMPERe, an optimizer debugging facility that captures the state necessary to recreate problems and fix them. Together these capabilities: parallel search and specialized debugging have advanced the state of the art significantly.

What does it mean to you? It will take some time to shake out ORCA… and HAWQ is still very slow when compared to other analytic databases… and very very slow when compared to the in-memory databases available… and in-memory products like Spark are coming to the Hadoop eco-system. But at the price point HAWQ is a bargain. If you need an inexpensive batch engine that crunches numbers offline then in the next year, as ORCA matures, it may be worth a look.

As a side note… this topic introduces one of the issues related to in-memory databases… when even a very complex query completes with a sub-optimal plan in under a second how much time can you spend searching the plan space? I suspect that applying the parallel optimization principles developed by the Greenplum team will yield similar or even better improvements for in-memory… and these techniques will be a requirement very soon in that space.

References

 

Who is How Columnar? Exadata, Teradata, and HANA – Part 2: Column Processing

In my last post here I suggested that there were three levels of maturity around column orientation and described the first level, PAX, which provides columnar compression. This apparently is the level Exadata operates at with its Hybrid Columnar Compression.

In this post we will consider the next two levels of maturity: early materialized column processing and late materialized column processing which provide more I/O avoidance and some processing advantages.

In the previous post I suggested a five-column table and depicted each of those columns oriented on disk in separate file structures. This orientation provides the second level of maturity: columnar projection.

Imagine a query that selects only 4 of the five columns in the table leaving out the EmpFirst column. In this case the physical structure that stores EmpFirst does not have to be accessed; 20% less data is read, reducing the I/O overhead by the same amount. Somewhere in the process the magic has to be invoked that returns the columns to a row orientation… but just maybe that overhead costs less than the saving from the reduced I/O?

Better still, imagine a fact table with 100 columns and a query that accesses only 10 of the columns. This is a very common use case. The result is a 9X reduction in the amount of data that has to be read and a 9X reduction in the cost of weaving columns into rows. This is columnar projection and the impact of this far outweighs small advantage offered by PAX (PAX may provide a .1X-.5X, 10%-50%, compression advantage over full columnar tables). This is the advantage that lets most of the columnar databases beat Exadata in a fair fight.

But Teradata and Greenplum stop here. After data is projected and selected the data is decompressed into rows and processed using their conventional row-based database engines. The gains from more maturity are significant.

The true column stores read compressed columnar data into memory and then operate of the columnar data directly. This provides distinct advantages:

  • Since data remains compressed DRAM is used more efficiently
  • Aggregations against a single column access data in contiguous memory improving cache utilization
  • Since data remains compressed processor caches are used more efficiently
  • Since data is stored in bit maps it can be processed as vectors using the super-computing instruction sets available in many CPUs
  • Aggregations can be executed using multiplication instead of table scans
  • Distinct query optimizations are available when columnar dictionaries are available
  • Column structures behave as built-in indexes, eliminating the need for separate index structures

These advantages can provide 10X-50X performance improvements over the previous level of maturity.

Summary

  • Column Compression provides approximately a 4X performance advantage over row compression (10X instead of 2.5X). This is Column Maturity Level 1.
  • Columnar Projection includes the advantages of Column Compression and provides a further 5X-10X performance advantage (if your queries touch 1/5-1/10 of the columns). This is Column Maturity Level 2.
  • Columnar Processing provides a 10X+ performance improvement over just compression and projection. This is Column Maturity Level 3.

Of course your mileage will vary… If your workload tends to touch more than 80% of the columns in your big fact tables then columnar projection will not be useful… and Exadata may win. If your queries do not do much aggregation then columnar processing will be less useful… and a product at Level 2 may win. And of course, this blog has not addressed the complexities of joins and loading and workload management… so please do not consider this as a blanket promotion for Level 3 column stores… but now that you understand the architecture I hope you will be better able to call BS on the marketing…

Included is a table that outlines the maturity level of several products:

Product

Columnar Maturity Level

Notes

Teradata

2

 Columnar tables, Row Engine
Exadata

1

 PAX only
HANA

3

 Full Columnar Support
Greenplum

2

 Columnar tables, Row Engine
DB2

3

 BLU Hybrid
SQL Server

2

 I think… researching…
Vertica

3

 Full Columnar Support
Paraccel

3

 Full Columnar Support
Netezza

n/a

 No Columnar Support
Hadapt

2

 I think… researching…

My 2 Cents: Greenplum 1Q2013

Unripe plums
Unripe plums (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

Since my blogs tend to be in response to some stimulus they may not reflect a holistic view on any particular product. The “My 2 Cents” series will try to provide a broader view…

Please consider this as you read on…

Summary

From a technical perspective, Greenplum is my favorite data warehouse database. Built on the same architecture as Teradata (see here), the Greenplum team was able to extend the core of Postgres… first building out a shared-nothing architecture and then adding feature after feature… putting the heat on the other major players. Greenplum was the first row-based RDBMS to add full columnar support… and their data-loading capability is second-to-none.

Oddly they do not want to be in the data warehouse space. Their recent announcement (here) does not include any reference to data warehousing or business intelligence. The tweets from @Greenplum, the Greenplum website, and all things marketing are focussed on analytics and/or Hadoop. Even their page on data warehousing (here) has no articles on data warehousing. It is just not their target market. That is fine… the product is still a great EDW platform… but it is a worry.

Where They Win

The reason they target analytics is because they excel there. If your warehouse workload clogs because of big, complex, queries… Greenplum can win the day. Their data flow architecture, which keeps tuples moving from execution step to execution step without writing to spool provides them with the ability to beat the competition on analytics. They provide a very rich set of in-database analytics and some add-on capabilities to improve the productivity of your data scientist team.

Their data load architecture, which they call scatter-gather, is a big differentiator. If your problem is that you cannot get data loaded and reports out in your nightly batch window then the combination of scatter-gather and the ability to run big report queries is unbeatable.

Greenplum also has a unique solution for near-real-time. They marry Gemfire, an in-memory object-oriented database, with scatter-gather to move small batches of inserted data to Greenplum with a very small time delta. I do not believe this solution supports inserts or deletes as they have to be applied directly to the Greenplum database… but it is a nice capability for a certain class of problems.

Where They Lose

Greenplum, like Teradata, can be beat when the problem to be solved is narrow. In these cases, when the database supports a single application with a small number of queries or when it supports a narrowly focussed data mart, they are vulnerable to Netezza, Vertica, or even Exadata. It is also sometimes the case that a poorly designed POC can narrow the scope enough that Greenplum loses.

Greenplum can also lose when a full EDW is required. The basic architecture of the RDBMS is capable of supporting an EDW… but some of the operational features required… RASR, workload, incremental backup, etc. are not mature. This may well be the intentional result of their focus away from these features at analytics.

In the Market

Despite the worries Greenplum should be included in every POC. They will push Teradata hard in performance and in price/performance.

As noted here… I do not understand their market strategy. It seems that they are competing with themselves by offering Hadoop for analytics… but this cannot be a bad thing for customers even if it is an odd position in the market. The analytics market they favor is tough… relatively small (compared to the DW space)… emerging… there are several capable competitors… and the market is haunted by the same problem that killed the data mining market in the mid-1990’s… there are just not enough skilled data scientists (see here).

My Guess at the Future

I cannot guess at the future of Greenplum… They are being moved into a new business unit that could be spun into a new company that has a charter to build software for the cloud (see here). This is odd in several dimensions. First, as I noted here, the shared nothing architecture Greenplum is built on is not a perfect fit for the cloud. There are ways to get around this (maybe the topic for a future post?) but it will require development in a fundamentally new direction. Further, the new division seems to be a software-only venture. This makes the future of the EMC Greenplum Data Computing Appliance uncertain. I suppose that there will be announcements soon to clarify these questions… but the architectural disconnects make it likely that there will be some arm-waving for a while.

Next up… my 2 Cents on The Rest…

30+ Year Old Database Architecture: DB2, Oracle, Postgres, Teradata, Sybase, and More…

As you look at the enterprise RDBMS marketplace today you will find something shocking… almost every product in the market is built based on designs and concepts that are over thirty years old. IBM’s System R grew into DB2 and influenced Oracle before 1980. Ingres, developed before 1980, became Postgres which became Netezza and Greenplum and more. Teradata was a fresh start… around 1980.

This is not a bad thing in its own right… but imagine the hardware architectures these systems were designed and optimized for. Maybe DB2 was built for a multi-core mainframe… maybe Oracle too… maybe. Memory was tiny… so memory management was important and memory was used sparingly. Data sizes were tiny. Consider the fact that Teradata named the company based on the belief that someday way beyond the planning horizon some customers might get to a terabyte of data.

The reality is that these old designs are inefficient. They have hacked the old code to continuously extend their products. I mean this as a compliment. It is not trivial engineering to find tweaks and tack-ons that make old code work on new hardware architectures. Teradata and Netezza and Greenplum designed ways to use multiple address spaces to take advantage of multiple cores. Oracle tacked-on a shared-nothing I/O subsystem to a shared-everything architecture to stretch.

But these hacks are not efficient.

Yale is working on some new-new stuff (see here). HANA is based on a completely different design (see here). The NoSQL vendors have bent the ACID-tested rules, if not always the fundamental approaches.

I can’t help but believe that in one of these new approaches is a path forward.

If you would like to read some history of the start here is a cool link.

Who is Massively Parallel? HANA vs. Teradata and (maybe) Oracle

I have promised not to promote HANA heavily on this site… and I will keep that promise. But I want to share something with you about the HANA architecture that is not part of the normal marketing in-memory database (IMDB) message: HANA is parallel from its foundation.

What I mean by that is that when a query is executed in-memory HANA dynamically shards the data in-memory and lets each core start a thread to work on its shard.

Other shared-nothing implementations like Teradata and Greenplum, which are not built on a native parallel architecture, start multiple instances of the database to take advantage of multiple cores. If they can start an instance-per-core then they approximate the parallelism of a native implementation… at the cost of inter-instance communication. Oracle, to my knowledge, does not parallelize steps within a single instance… I could be wrong there so I’ll ask my readers to help?

As you would expect, for analytics and complex queries this architecture provides a distinct advantage. HANA customers are optimizing price models sub-second in-real-time with each quote instead of executing a once-a-week 12-hour modeling job.

June 11, 2013: You can find a more complete and up-to-date discussion of this topic here… – Rob

As you would expect HANA cannot yet stretch into the petabyte range. The current HANA sweet spot is for warehouses or marts is in the sub-TB to 20TB range.

Cloud Computing and Data Warehousing: Part 1 – The Architectural Issues

My apologies… I was playing with the iPad version of WordPress and accidentally published a very rough outline/first draft of this post. I immediately un-published it… but not before subscribers were notified that there was a new post.

I wonder about the idea that data warehousing is suited to operate in the cloud? This was prompted by Paraccel‘s venture to deploy on the Amazon EC2 cloud infrastructure. Lets work through the architectural implications…

Here are the assumptions I’ll take into this exploration:

  1. A shared-nothing architecture is required to scale.
  2. Cloud infrastructure is cost-effective when the infrastructure is under-utilized and workloads can be consolidated to achieve full utilization… and not so cost-effective when the infrastructure is highly utilized. This is because applications can easily share underutilized resources in the Cloud.
  3. Cloud infrastructure is justified when the workload is inconsistent and either CPU or storage requirements fluctuate widely over the business cycle. This is because a Cloud is elastic and can easily flex as the requirements fluctuate. Cloud computing may not be well suited to static workload requirements.

You can probably see where I’m going with this from the assumptions.

In the end I’ll suggest that there is a database architecture that is suited to warehousing and cloud computing… but let me build to that.

Before I start let me also be clear that I am talking about the database infrastructure… not the application/BI infrastructure required for data warehousing. The BI and ETL components are perfectly suited to cloud computing… they reflect a workload that, in general, runs on under-utilized hardware with BI running during the day and ETL running at night. I have suggested this to my current employer… but alas, I am neither King nor a member of Court.

So in Part 1 let me discuss my first two assumptions and the implications… In Part 2 I’ll discuss data warehousing and elasticity… In Part 3 I’ll consider the Paraccel/Amazon collaboration and in Part 4 I’ll wrap up and consider several new things coming that may change the equations.
—————-
I’ll not work too hard to justify my first assumption… I think that it is well-understood that a shared-nothing architecture provides the best possible approach to scale out. Google and others use this approach to scale to hundreds of petabytes of data and Teradata, Greenplum, Netezza, Paraccel, SAP HANA, and others use it in the data warehouse space. Exadata uses a hybrid approach that scales I/O in a shared-nothing-like storage subsystem… but fails to scale as it passes data to the RAC layer (see Kevin Closson here on the subject).

But the implications are significant for our cloud discussion. First, cloud infrastructure is designed to support general client-server or web-server based commercial computing requirements. A shared-nothing database cluster is a specialized infrastructure optimized for database processing. Implementing the specialized problem on the generalized infrastructure is possible, but sub-optimal. Next, cloud computing requires, more or less, a shared storage subsystem. A shared-nothing architecture shares nothing. Implementing a shared-nothing database on a shared storage subsystem is possible, but sub-optimal.

I believe that the second assumption is also pretty straightforward. The primary rationale for cloud computing comes from the recognition that many data centers deployed applications on servers that were not fully utilized. By virtualizing the hardware on a cloud platform the data center could better service the applications with fewer hardware resources and therefore less cost.

So… in order for cloud computing to be a perfect fit we need to observe a data warehouse database workload with underutilized hardware infrastructure… You might ask yourself… are there underutilized hardware resources upon which my EDW is built? In most cases I believe that the answer to this question will be “no”. Almost every EDW I’ve seen is over-burdened… stretched… with users demanding more and more resource… more data, more users, more queries, deeper queries drive the resource requirements up exponentially. The database is swamped all day with queries and swamped all night by ETL and reporting tasks.

So let’s end this blog concluding that there is a problematic architectural mismatch between a shared cloud and a shared-nothing implementation… and that if your warehouse database platform is highly utilized then there may be little benefit from implementing a warehouse in the cloud.

See Part 2 here

More on Exalytics Capacity…

I found myself wondering where did the rule-of-thumb for Exalytics  that suggests that TimesTen can use 800GB of a 1TB memory space… and requires 400GB of that space for work tables leaving room for 400GB of user data… come from (it is quoted everywhere… here is an example… see question #13).

Sure enough, this rule has been around for a while in the TimesTen literature… in fact it predates Exalytics (see here).

Why is this important? The workspace per query for a TPC-A transaction is very small and the amount of time the memory is held by a TPC-A transaction is very short. But the workspace required by a TPC-H query is at least 10X the space required by a TPC-A query and the duration of a TPC-H query is at least 10X the duration of a TPC-A query. The result is at least 100X more pressure on memory utilization.

So… I suspect that the 600GB of user data I calculated here may be off by more than a little. Maybe Exalytics can support 300GB of user data or 100GB of user data or maybe 60GB?

Note that this is not bad… all of this pressure on memory is still moved to Exalytics from the Exadata RAC subsystem… where memory is dear.

As a side note… it is always important to remember that the pressure on memory is the amount of memory utilized times the duration of the utilization. This is why the data flow architecture used in modern databases like Greenplum are effective. Greenplum uses more memory per transaction but it holds the memory for less time by never (almost) writing it to disk. This is different from older database architectures like Teradata and Oracle which use disk to store intermediate results… lowering the overall amount of memory required but increasing the duration of the query. More on this here

What is Big Data? No kidding this time…

I posted a little joke on this topic here… this time I’ll try to say some a little more substantive…

Big Data is the new, new, thing. The phrase is everywhere. A Google search on the exact words “Big Data” updated in the last year yields 39,300,000 results. The Wikipedia entry for Big Data suggests that big data is related to data volumes that are difficult to process. There is specific mention of data volumes that are beyond the ability to process easily with relational technology. Examples are typically listed of weblog data and sensor data.

I am not a fan of the if-its-so-big-its-difficult-to-handle line of thinking. This definition lets anyone and everyone claim to process Big Data. Even the Wikipedia article suggests that for small enterprises “Big Data” could be under a Terabyte.

Nor I am a fan of the anti-relational approach. I have seen Greenplum relational technology solve 7000TB weblog queries on a fraction of the hardware required by Big Data alternatives like Hadoop in a fraction of the processing time. If relational can handle 7PB+ then Big Data means web-scale size… 1000’s of petabytes and only Google-sized companies can contain it. Big Data seems smaller than that.

Maybe the answer lies in focusing on the “new” part? An Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW) can be smallish or large… but there are new data subject areas in the Big Data examples that may not be appropriate for an EDW. Sensor data might not be usefully joined to more than a few dimensions from the EDW… so maybe it does not make sense to store it in the same infrastructure? The same goes for click-stream and syslog data… and maybe for call detail records and smart meter reads in telcos and utilities?

So Big Data is associated with new subject areas not conventionally stored in an EDW… big enough… and made up of atomic data such that there is little business value in placing it in the EDW. Big Data can stand alone… value derived from it may be added to the EDW. Deriving that value come from another new buzzword: Big Data Analytics… surely the topic of another note…

The Best Data Warehouse Spin of 2011

At this time of the year bloggers everywhere look back and reflect. Some use the timing to highlight significant achievements… and it is in the spirit that I would like to announce my choice for the best marketing in the data warehouse vendor space for 2011.

Marketing is a difficult task. Marketeers need to walk a line between reality and bull-pucky. They need to appeal to real and apparent needs yet differentiate. Often they need to generate spin to fuzz a good story by a competitors marketing or to de-emphasize some short-coming in their own product line.

Below is a picture taken on the floor of a prospect where we engaged in a competitive proof-of-concept. The customer requested that vendors ship a single rack configuration… and so we did.

But the marketing coup is that the vendor on the right, Teradata, told the customer that this is a single rack configuration and that they are in compliance. The customer has asked us if this is reasonable?

This creative marketing spin wins the 2011 award going away… against very tough competition.

I expect this marketing approach to start a trend in the space. Soon we will see warehouse appliance vendors claiming that 1TB = 50TB due to compression… or was that already done this year?

Sorry to be cynical… but I hope that the picture and story provide you with a giggle… and that the giggle helps you to start a happy holiday season.

– Rob Klopp