A Short DW DBMS Market History: HANA, Oracle, DB2, Netezza, Teradata, & Greenplum

Here is a quick review of tens years of data warehouse database competition… and a peek ahead…

Maybe ten years ago Netezza shook up the DW DBMS market with a parallel database machine that could compete with Teradata.

About six years ago Greenplum entered the market with a commodity-based product that was competitive… and then added column store to make it a price/performance winner.

A couple of years later Oracle entered with Exadata… a product competitive enough to keep the Oracle faithful on an Oracle product… but nothing really special otherwise.

Teradata eventually added a columnar feature that matched Greenplum… and Greenplum focussed away from the data warehouse space. Netezza could not match the power of columnar and could not get there so they fell away.

At this point Teradata was more-or-less back on top… although Greenplum and the other chipped away based on price. In addition, Hadoop entered the market and ate away at Teradata’s dominance in the Big Data space. The impact of Hadoop is well documented in this blog.

Three-to-four years ago SAP introduced HANA and the whole market gasped. HANA was delivering 1000X performance using columnar formats, memory to eliminate I/O, and bare-metal techniques that effectively loaded data into the processor in full cache lines.

Unfortunately, SAP did not take advantage of their significant lead in the general database markets. They focussed on their large installed base of customers… pricing HANA in a way that generated revenue but did not allow for much growth in market share. Maybe this was smart… maybe not… I was not privy to the debate.

Now Oracle has responded with in-memory columnar capability and IBM has introduced BLU. We might argue over which implementation is best… but clearly whatever lead SAP HANA held is greatly diminished. Further, HANA pricing makes it a very tough sell outside of its implementation inside the SAP Business Suite.

Teradata has provided a memory-based cache under its columnar capabilities… but this is not at the same level of sophistication as the HANA, 12c, BLU technologies which compute directly against compressed columnar data.

Hadoop is catching up slowly and we should expect that barring some giant advance from the commercial space that they will reach parity in the next 5 years or so (the will claim parity sooner… but if we require all of the capabilities offered to be present there is just no way to produce mature software any faster than 5 years).

Interestingly there is one player who seems to be advancing the state of the art. Greenplum has rolled out a best-in-class optimizer with Orca… and now has acquired Quickstep which may provide the state-of-the-art in bare metal columnar computing. When these come together Greenplum could once again bounce to the top of the performance, and the price/performance, stack. In addition, Greenplum has skinnied down and is running on an open source business model. They are very Hadoop-friendly.

It will be interesting to see if this open-source business model provides the revenue to drive advanced development… there is not really a “community” behind Greenplum development. It will also be interesting to see if the skinny business model will allow for the deployment of an enterprise-level sales force… but it just might. If Pivotal combines this new technology with a focus on the large EDW market… they may become a bigger player.

Note that was sort of dumb-luck that I posted about how Hadoop might impact revenues of big database players like Teradata right before Teradata posted a loss… but do not over think this and jump to the conclusion that Teradata is dying. They are the leader in their large space. They have great technology and they more-or-less keep up with the competition. But skinnier companies can afford to charge less and Teradata, who grew up in the days of big enterprise software, will have to skinny down like Greenplum. It will be much harder for Teradata than it was for Greenplum… and both companies will struggle with profitability for a while. But it is these technology and market dynamics that give us all something to think about, blog about, and talk about over beers…

Thinking About the Pivotal Announcements…

Yesterday I provided a model for how business sees open source as a means to be profitable (here). This is the game Pivotal seems to be playing with their release of Hadoop, Gemfire, HAWQ, and Greenplum into open source. I do not know their real numbers… so they may need more or fewer additional customers than the mythical company to get back to break-even. But it is unlikely that any company can turn the corner from a license-based revenue stream to a recurring revenue stream in a year… so Pivotal must be looking at a loss. And when losses come it is usual to cut costs… to cut R&D.

There has already been a brain-drain out of the database ranks at Pivotal as they went “all in” on Hadoop. They likely hope for an open source community to pick up the slack… but there is not a body of success I can see in building a community to engineer a commercial product-turned-open. This is especially problematic for Gemfire, an old technology that has been in the commercial space for a very long time. HAWQ has to compete for database resources with the other Hadoop RDBMS technologies… that will be difficult. Greenplum has a chance as it is based on PostgreSQL… but it is a long way away from the current PostgreSQL code base these days. There is danger here.

The bottom line… Greenplum and HAWQ and Gemfire have become risky propositions for both the current customer base and for new customers. I’ll leave it to you to evaluate the risk as this story unfolds. Still, with the risk comes reward… the cost of acquiring Greenplum will drop dramatically and today Greenplum is a competitive product. In addition, if Greenplum gains some traction, it will put price pressure on the other database products. Note that HAWQ was already marked down to open source price levels… and part of Pivotal’s problem was that HAWQ was eating at the Greenplum market. With these products priced at similar levels there becomes some weirdness in choosing… but the advantage is to customers looking at Greenplum.

One great outcome comes for Pivotal Hadoop customers… the fact that Hortonworks will more-or-less subsume Pivotal Hadoop leaves those folks in a better place than before.

If you consider the thought experiment you would have to ask yourself why a company that was breaking even would take this risky route? It could be that they took the route because they were not breaking even and this was a possible path to get even. Also consider… open sourcing code is the modern graceful way to retire an unprofitable product line.

This is sound thinking by Pivotal… during the creation, EMC gave Pivotal several unprofitable troubled assets and these announcements give Pivotal a path forward. If the database product line cannot carry their weight then they will go into maintenance mode and slowly fade. Too bad… as you know I consider Greenplum a solid product whose potential was wasted. But Pivotal has a very nice product in Cloud Foundry… and they clearly see this as their route to profitability and to an IPO… a route that no longer includes a significant contribution from database products.

Open Source is Not a Market…

This post is more about the technology business than about technology… but it may be relevant as you try to sort out winners and losers… and this sort of sorting is important if you consider new companies who may, or may not, succeed in the long run.

To make my point let us do a little thought experiment. Imagine a company doing $100M in revenue with a commercial, not open source, database product. They win the $100M in revenue by competing with Oracle, IBM, Microsoft, Teradata, et cetera… and maybe competing a little here and there with some open source products.

Let’s assume that they make 50% of their revenue from services and support, and that their average sale is $2M… so they close 25 deals a year competing in this market. Finally, let’s assume that they break-even each year and spend 20% of their revenues on R&D. The industry average for support services is 20%.. so with each $2M sale they add $400K in recurring revenue.

They are considering making their product open source. Let’s assume that they make the base product free… and provide some value-added offering that costs $200K for the average buyer. Further, they offer a support package for the same $400K/year customers currently pay. How does the math work out?

Let’s baseline against the 25 deals/year…

If they make 25 sales and every buyer buys both the support package and the value-added offer the average sale drops from $2M to $200K, sales revenue drops from $50M to $5M, the annual revenue drops from $100M to $55M… and the company loses $45M. So… starting off they need to make 225 more sales just to break even. But now it gets complicated… if they sell 5 extra deals then in the next year they earn $2M extra in support fees… so if they sell 113 extra deals in year one then in year two they have made up the entire $45M difference and they are back to break-even going forward. If it takes them 2 years to get the extra recurring revenue then they lose money in year two… but are back to break-even in year three.

From here it gets even more complicated. The mythical company above sells the baseline of 25 new copies a year with an enterprise sales force that is expensive. There is no way that the same sales force that services 25 sales/year could service 100+ extra deals. So either costs go up or the 100+ extra customers becomes unattainable. We might hope that the cost of sales will drop way off as the sales price moves to $200K. This is not unreasonable… but certainly not guaranteed. Further, if you are one of the existing sales-staff then you have to sell 10X just to make the same commission. Finally these numbers assume that every customer buys the value-add and gets enterprise-level support. Reality will be something less than this.

We might ask: is it even possible to sell 100+ more with the same product in the same market? Let us be clear that the market the database product plays in has not changed. Open Source is not a market. All we have done is reduced the sales price for the product with some hope that price is a significant driver in the market.

This is not meant as an academic exercise. Tomorrow we will consider how this thought experiment applies to Pivotal’s announcements last week… and to the future of Pivotal’s database assets (here).

The Greenplum ORCA Optimizer

In January Greenplum rolled out a new query optimizer. This is very cool and very advanced stuff.

Query optimization is a search problem… in a perfect world you would search through the space of all possible plans for any query and choose the least expensive plan. But the time required to iterate through all possible plans would take more time than most queries… so optimizers use rules to cut down the space searched. The rules have been built up over the years and are designed to prune the space quickly to keep performance high for simple queries. But these rules can break down when complex queries are introduced… so Greenplum made the significant investment to build a new optimizer from scratch.

Florian Waas, the leader of this program for Greenplum (now off on another venture) explained it to me this way. If the large rectangle in Figure 1 represents the total search space for a query, a modern query optimizer only searches the area in the small gray square… it looks for the best plan in that small space.

DBFog Query Search Space Fig1You may be surprised to learn that the optimizers used by every major DBMS product are single-threaded… they use only one core of a multi-core processor to search the space and produce a plan. There is no way to effectively search more with a faster single processor (even though you could search more the amount of time you spend as a percentage of the query execution time would stay the same… because the query execution would speed up as well)… so if the optimizer is to search more of the space it will have to use multiple cores and search the space in parallel… and this is exactly what Greenplum has accomplished.

The benchmark results for this are impressive (see here)… several queries in the TPC-DS suite run hundreds of times faster.

ORCA is available to early support customers now and the results map to the benchmark… some queries see an extreme performance boost, while others run significantly slower. This is to be expected from any first release optimizer.

But Greenplum have built another advanced technology into ORCA to reduce the time it will take to mature the software. ORCA includes AMPERe, an optimizer debugging facility that captures the state necessary to recreate problems and fix them. Together these capabilities: parallel search and specialized debugging have advanced the state of the art significantly.

What does it mean to you? It will take some time to shake out ORCA… and HAWQ is still very slow when compared to other analytic databases… and very very slow when compared to the in-memory databases available… and in-memory products like Spark are coming to the Hadoop eco-system. But at the price point HAWQ is a bargain. If you need an inexpensive batch engine that crunches numbers offline then in the next year, as ORCA matures, it may be worth a look.

As a side note… this topic introduces one of the issues related to in-memory databases… when even a very complex query completes with a sub-optimal plan in under a second how much time can you spend searching the plan space? I suspect that applying the parallel optimization principles developed by the Greenplum team will yield similar or even better improvements for in-memory… and these techniques will be a requirement very soon in that space.

References

 

Part 7 – How Hadooped is Greenplum, the Pivotal GPDB?

Now for Greenplum & Hadoop… to continue this thread on RDBMS-Hadoop integration (Part 1Part 2, Part 3, Part 4Part 5, Part 6) I have suggested that we could evaluate integration architecture using three criteria:

  1. How parallel are the pipes to move data between the RDBMS and the parallel file system;
  2. Is there intelligence to push down predicates; and
  3. Is there more intelligence to push down joins and other relational operators?

The Greenplum interface is architecturally similar to the Teradata interface described in Part 4. Hadoop files are defined to the DBMS as external tables and there are capable parallel pipes to effectively move data from the HDFS side to GPDB. In addition Greenplum uses their Scatter-Gather method to load data into the GPDB effectively.

There is no ability to push down predicates. When a query executes all of the relevant data is sucked through the parallel pipes into the database segments for processing. This is very inefficient and there is not even the crude capability to push down processing provided by Teradata.

Finally, there is no ability to push down joins or aggregation.

Greenplum’s offering is not very advanced. To perform with Greenplum analytics data must move between the two storage layers with no intelligence to mitigate the cost.

On to the last post in the series Part 8 on SQL Server and Polybase.

Pivotal GPDB and the 2013 Forrester Wave EDW Report

The last wave of the summer, 2008
A small wave. (Photo credit: Боби Димитров)

Forrester regularly provides fodder for bloggers when they report on the EDW space (see Curt Monash’s review of their last report here). They have a 2013 report out now that is quite mysterious (see here).

They report that Pivotal is up there with the leading EDW vendors and positioned to move further up.

Here is the mystery. If you go to the Pivotal site and search on “data warehouse” you get ten hits:

  • Eight talk about analytic data warehouses, not enterprise data warehouses;
  • One talks about using Hive as a data warehouse; and
  • One talks about data and sandboxing.

There are no hits on the term “enterprise data warehouse” and one hit on the term “EDW” which refers to why you should move data off of the EDW to an analytic platform.

As I’ve pointed out… Pivotal does not market into the EDW space. They are not developing product for that space.  EDW is not part of their product strategy.

The fact that their product is a capable platform for an EDW is worth noting… and readers of this blog should consider GPDB, aka Greenplum, for EDW projects. But you should be fully aware of the risk that Pivotal is not really backing this use case.

For an analyst to suggest that Pivotal has an industry-leading strategy in a space that they are not pursuing at all is very odd.

HANA, BLU, Hekaton, and Oracle 12c vs. Teradata and Greenplum – November 2013

Catch Me If You Can (musical)
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

I would like to point out a very important section in the paper on Hekaton on the Microsoft Research site here. I will quote the section in total:

2. DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS 

An analysis done early on in the project drove home the fact that a 10-100X throughput improvement cannot be achieved by optimizing existing SQL Server mechanisms. Throughput can be increased in three ways: improving scalability, improving CPI (cycles per instruction), and reducing the number of instructions executed per request. The analysis showed that, even under highly optimistic assumptions, improving scalability and CPI can produce only a 3-4X improvement. The detailed analysis is included as an appendix. 

The only real hope is to reduce the number of instructions executed but the reduction needs to be dramatic. To go 10X faster, the engine must execute 90% fewer instructions and yet still get the work done. To go 100X faster, it must execute 99% fewer instructions. This level of improvement is not feasible by optimizing existing storage and execution mechanisms. Reaching the 10-100X goal requires a much more efficient way to store and process data. 

This is important because it confirms the difference in a Level 3 and a Level 2 columnar implementation as described here. It is just not possible for a Level 2 implementation with a row-based join engine to achieve the performance of a Level 3 implementation. This will allow the Level 3 implementations: HANA, BLU, Hekaton, and Oracle 12c to distance themselves from the Level 2 products: Teradata and Greenplum; by more than 10X… and this is a very significant advantage.

Related articles

CPUs and HW for HANA, BLU, Hekaton, and Oracle 12c

CPUs from retired computers waiting for recycl...
(Photo credit: Wikipedia)

This short post is intended to provide a quick warning regarding in-memory columnar and cpu requirements… with a longer post to follow.

When a row is inserted or bulk-loaded into a DBMS, if there are no indexes, the amount of cpu required is very small. The majority of the time is spent committing a transaction is the time to write a log record to persist the data.

When the same record is reformatted into a column the amount of processing required is significantly higher. The data must be parsed into columns, the values must be compressed, dictionaries may be updated, and the breadcrumbs that let the columnar data be regenerated into rows must be laid. Further, if the columnar structure are to be optimized then the data must be ordered… with a sort or some kind of index structure. I have seen academic papers that suggest that for an insert columnar processing may be 100X more than row processing… and you can see why this could be true (I apologize for not finding the reference… I’ll dig it up… as I recall I read it in a post some time back by Daniel Abadi).

Now let’s think about this… several vendors are suggesting that you can deploy their columnar features with no changes required… no new hardware… in-place. But this does not ring true if the new columnar feature requires 100X extra CPU cycles per row… or 50X… or 10X… unless you are running your database on an empty server.

This claim is a shot at SAP who, more honestly, suggests new hardware with high-end processors for their in-memory columnar product… but methinks it is marketing, not architecture, from these other folks.

Who is How Columnar? Exadata, Teradata, and HANA – Part 2: Column Processing

In my last post here I suggested that there were three levels of maturity around column orientation and described the first level, PAX, which provides columnar compression. This apparently is the level Exadata operates at with its Hybrid Columnar Compression.

In this post we will consider the next two levels of maturity: early materialized column processing and late materialized column processing which provide more I/O avoidance and some processing advantages.

In the previous post I suggested a five-column table and depicted each of those columns oriented on disk in separate file structures. This orientation provides the second level of maturity: columnar projection.

Imagine a query that selects only 4 of the five columns in the table leaving out the EmpFirst column. In this case the physical structure that stores EmpFirst does not have to be accessed; 20% less data is read, reducing the I/O overhead by the same amount. Somewhere in the process the magic has to be invoked that returns the columns to a row orientation… but just maybe that overhead costs less than the saving from the reduced I/O?

Better still, imagine a fact table with 100 columns and a query that accesses only 10 of the columns. This is a very common use case. The result is a 9X reduction in the amount of data that has to be read and a 9X reduction in the cost of weaving columns into rows. This is columnar projection and the impact of this far outweighs small advantage offered by PAX (PAX may provide a .1X-.5X, 10%-50%, compression advantage over full columnar tables). This is the advantage that lets most of the columnar databases beat Exadata in a fair fight.

But Teradata and Greenplum stop here. After data is projected and selected the data is decompressed into rows and processed using their conventional row-based database engines. The gains from more maturity are significant.

The true column stores read compressed columnar data into memory and then operate of the columnar data directly. This provides distinct advantages:

  • Since data remains compressed DRAM is used more efficiently
  • Aggregations against a single column access data in contiguous memory improving cache utilization
  • Since data remains compressed processor caches are used more efficiently
  • Since data is stored in bit maps it can be processed as vectors using the super-computing instruction sets available in many CPUs
  • Aggregations can be executed using multiplication instead of table scans
  • Distinct query optimizations are available when columnar dictionaries are available
  • Column structures behave as built-in indexes, eliminating the need for separate index structures

These advantages can provide 10X-50X performance improvements over the previous level of maturity.

Summary

  • Column Compression provides approximately a 4X performance advantage over row compression (10X instead of 2.5X). This is Column Maturity Level 1.
  • Columnar Projection includes the advantages of Column Compression and provides a further 5X-10X performance advantage (if your queries touch 1/5-1/10 of the columns). This is Column Maturity Level 2.
  • Columnar Processing provides a 10X+ performance improvement over just compression and projection. This is Column Maturity Level 3.

Of course your mileage will vary… If your workload tends to touch more than 80% of the columns in your big fact tables then columnar projection will not be useful… and Exadata may win. If your queries do not do much aggregation then columnar processing will be less useful… and a product at Level 2 may win. And of course, this blog has not addressed the complexities of joins and loading and workload management… so please do not consider this as a blanket promotion for Level 3 column stores… but now that you understand the architecture I hope you will be better able to call BS on the marketing…

Included is a table that outlines the maturity level of several products:

Product

Columnar Maturity Level

Notes

Teradata

2

 Columnar tables, Row Engine
Exadata

1

 PAX only
HANA

3

 Full Columnar Support
Greenplum

2

 Columnar tables, Row Engine
DB2

3

 BLU Hybrid
SQL Server

2

 I think… researching…
Vertica

3

 Full Columnar Support
Paraccel

3

 Full Columnar Support
Netezza

n/a

 No Columnar Support
Hadapt

2

 I think… researching…

Who is How Columnar? Exadata, Teradata, and HANA – Part 1: Column Compression

Basic Table

There are three forms of columnar-orientation currently deployed by database systems today. Each builds upon the next. The simplest form uses column-orientation to provide better data compression. The next level of maturity stores columnar data in separate structures to support columnar projection. The most mature implementations support a columnar database engine that performs relational algebra on column-oriented data. Let me explain…

Imagine a simple table with 1M rows… with the schema and the first several rows depicted in Figure 1. Conceptually, a row-orientation deploys data on disk and in-memory as depicted in Figure 2 and a column-orientation deploys data on disk and in-memory as depicted in Figure 3. The actual deployment may be significantly different, as we will see.

Note that I am going to throw out some indicative numbers around compression. I will suggest that applying compression to rows will provide from 1.5X to 3.5X compression with and average of 2.5X… and that applying compression to columns provides from 3X compression to 50X compression with the average around 10X. These are supportable numbers but the compression you see for any specific data set will vary.

A row oriented block

There are two powerful compression techniques that individually or combined provide most of the benefits: dictionary-encoding and run-length encoding. For the purposes of this blog I will describe only dictionary-encoding; and I will do an injustice to that by explaining it only briefly and conceptually… just enough that you get the idea.

Five column oriented blocks

Further compression is possible by encoding runs of similar values to a value plus the number of times it repeats so that the bit stream 0000000000000000 could be represented as 01111 (0 occurs 24 times).

You can now also start to see why column-orientation compresses better that a row-orientation. In the row block above there is little opportunity to encode whole rows in a dictionary… the cardinality of rows in a table is too high (note that this may not be true for a dimension table which is, in-effect, a dictionary). There is some opportunity to encode the bit runs in a row… as noted, you can expect to get 2X-2.5X from row compression for a fact table. Column-orientation allows dictionary encoding to be applied effectively to low cardinality columns… and this accounts for the advantage there.

Col Dict

Dictionary-encoding reduces data to a compressed form by building a map that provides a translation for each cardinal value in the table to a tightly compressed form. For example, if there are indeed only three values possible in the DeptID field above then we might build a dictionary for that column as depicted in Figure 4. You can see… by encoding and storing the data in the minimal number of bits required, significant storage reduction is possible… and the lower the cardinality of a column the smaller the resulting bit representation.

Note that there is no free lunch here. There is a cost to be paid in CPU cycles to compress data and to decompress data… but for a read-optimized data warehouse database compression is cool. Exactly how cool depends on the level of maturity and we will get to that as we go.

It is crucial to remember that column store databases are relational. They ingest rows and emit rows and perform relational algebra in-between. So there has to be some magic that turns tuples into columns and restores them from columns. The integrity of a row has to persist. Again I am going to defer on the details and point you at the references below… but imagine that for each row a bit map is built that, for each column, points to the entry in the column dictionary with the proper value.

There is no free lunch to column store… no free lunch anywhere, it seems. Building this bit map on INSERT is very expensive, and modifying it on UPDATE is fairly expensive. This is why column-orientation is not suitable for OLTP workloads without some extra effort. But the cost is amortized by significant performance gains for READs.

One last concept: since peripheral I/O reads blocks imagine two approaches to column compression: one applies the concepts above to an entire table breaking each table into separate column-oriented files that may be read separately; and one which applies the concepts individually to each large block in a table file. Imagine, in the first case that Figure 2 represents a picture of the first few rows in our 1M-row table. Imagine, in the second case, that Figure 2 represents the rows in one block of data re-oriented into columns.

This second, block-oriented, approach is called PAX, and it is more-or-less the approach used by Exadata. In the PAX approach each block contains its own mini-column store and a dictionary for dictionary encoding with the values in the block. Because the cardinality for columns within a block will often be less than for an entire table there are some distinct advantages to PAX compression. Compression will be higher by more than a little than for full table columnar compression.

When Exadata reads a block from disk it decompresses the data back into rows and performs row-oriented processing to complete the query. This is very cool for Exadata… a great feature. As noted, column compression may be 4X better than row compression on the average. This reduces the storage requirements and reduces the overhead of I/O by 4X… and this is a very significant improvement. But Exadata stops here. It is not a columnar-oriented DBMS and it misses the significant advantages that come from the next two levels of column-orientation… I’ll take these up in the next post.

To be clear, all of the databases that use these more mature techniques: Teradata, HANA, Greenplum, Vertica, Paraccel, DB2, and SQL Server gain from columnar compression even if the PAX approach provides some small advantage as a compression technique.

It is also worth noting that Teradata does not gain as much as others in this regard. This is not because of poor design, rather it is due to the fact that, to their credit, Teradata implemented a Teradata-specific dictionary-based compression scheme long ago. Columnar compression let others catch up to what Teradata has offered for years.

And before you ask… Netezza offers no columnar orientation… preferring to compress deeply using an FPGA co-processor to decompress… and to reduce I/O using zone maps rather than the using the mid-level column projection techniques in the next blog here.